The study of the radiating module of the energy management system of buildings
Keywords:energy management, control system, smart home, radiating module, triangular microstrip antenna, reflection coefficient module, radiation characteristics
Purpose. Improving the toolkit of interaction between sensors and the building control system using a triangular microstrip antenna.
Methodology. Mathematical modeling by the method of finite differences in the time domain.
Findings. The proposed technical solution consists in choosing the optimal design of the radiating module in the form of a triangular microstrip antenna, by means of mathematical modeling, the values of the geometric dimensions of the triangle, the thickness of the dielectric layer and the value of its dielectric constant, the overall dimensions of the radiating module, which ensure optimal coordination of the antenna with the power feeder in the form of a microstrip line. The developed computer model of the triangular microstrip antenna using the finite-difference method in the time domain allows conducting research on the parameters of this antenna that provide stable wireless communication between the system of sensors and the home automation control unit. The condition for increasing the degree of matching the impedance of the antenna and the supply line is the choice of the method of powering the antenna. It was established that the most optimal way of feeding a triangular antenna is the method of connecting the microstrip line to the middle of the side of the triangle, compared to the way of connecting the power line to the top of the triangle. The width of the microstrip power line was optimized according to the criterion of minimizing the module of the reflection coefficient at the antenna input. A study of the degree of matching the impedance of the antenna at operating frequencies of 2,4 and 7 GHz was carried out. At a frequency of 7 GHz, the magnitude of the reflection coefficient module is -23,6776 dB. The three-dimensional and two-dimensional radiation patterns of this antenna are calculated. The radiation pattern has an almost spherical shape, that is, it allows placing the radiating module in any orientation relative to the earth's surface. This allows the triangular microstrip antenna to be used as a radiating module of the building energy management system and the smart home system.
Originality. The study of the ways of feeding the triangular microstrip antenna allows to find the optimal coupling of the antenna with the power line, which ensures the formation of radiation characteristics that ensure effective interaction between the sensors and the building's energy management control system.
Practical value. The radiation characteristics of a triangular microstrip antenna obtained as a result of the study make it possible to use it to organize a wireless communication channel in a 4% operating frequency band.
Jang H., Kang B., Keonhee C., Jang K., Park S. (2019). Design and implementation of IoT-based HVAC and lighting system for energy saving. Proceeding of MATEC Web of Conferences, 02012. DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/201926002012
Naqbi Al A., Alyieliely S. S., Talib M. Abu, Nasir Q., Bettayeb M., Ghenai C. (2021). Building energy management systems using the Internet of Things: systematic literature review. Proceeding of Interna-tional Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC), 1-7. DOI: 10.1109/ISNCC52172.2021.9615641
Dhanalakshmi S., Poongothai M., Sharma K. (2020). IoT based indoor air quality and smart en-ergy management for HVAC system. Procedia Computer Science, 1800-1809. DOI: 10.1016/j.procs.2020.04.193
Vishwakarma S. K., Upadhyaya P., Kumari B., Mishra A. K. (2019). Smart energy efficient home automation system using IoT. Proceeding of 4th International Conference on Internet of Things: Smart Innovation and Usages (IoT-SIU), 1-4. DOI: 10.1109/IoT-SIU.2019.8777607
Chen Y.-Y., Lin Y.-H., Kung C.-C., Chung M.-H., Yen I.-H. (2019). Design and implementation of cloud analytics-assisted smart power meters con-sidering advanced artificial intelligence as edge analytics in demand-side management for Smart Homes. Sensors, 19(9), 2047. DOI: 10.3390/s19092047
Monteiro V., Pinto J. G., Afonso J. L. (2016). Opera-tion modes for the electric vehicle in Smart Grids and Smart Homes: present and proposed modes. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 65(3), 1007-1020. DOI: 10.1109/TVT.2015.2481005
Rischke J., Sossalla P., Itting S., Fitzek F. H. P., Reis-slein M. (2021). 5G campus networks: a first measurement study. IEEE Access, 9, 121786- 121803. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3108423
Korolev N., Levitsky I., Khorov E. (2022). Analyti-cal model of multi-link operation in saturated het-erogeneous Wi-Fi 7 networks. IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, (12), 2546-2549. DOI: 10.1109/LWC.2022.3207946
Damacharla P., Javaid A. Y., Gallimore J. J., Devabhaktuni V. K. (2018). Common metrics to benchmark human-machine teams (HMT): a re-view. IEEE Access, 6, 38637-38655. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2853560
Hassan Q. F. (2018). Introduction to the Internet of Things. Internet of Things A to Z: Technologies and Applications. IEEE, 50. DOI: 10.1002/9781119456735.ch1
Osamy W., Khedr A. M., Salim A. (2019). ADSDA: adaptive distributed service discovery algorithm for Internet of Things based mobile wireless sensor networks. IEEE Sensors Journal, 9(22), 10869-10880. DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2019.2930589
Lee K.-Y., Chu Y.-M., Chen C.-C., Tsai C.-L., Lou S.-J. (2019). Case analysis on energy saving im-provement of commercial air conditioning sys-tems. Proceeding of. IEEE Eurasia Conference on IOT, Communication and Engineering (ECICE), 1-6. DOI: 10.1109/ECICE47484.2019.8942775
Thongkaew S., Charitkuan C. (2018). IoT for en-ergy saving of split-type air conditioner by control-ling supply air and area temperature. Proceeding of 22nd International Computer Science and En-gineering Conference (ICSEC), 1-4. DOI: 10.1109/ICSEC.2018.8712656
Tastan M., Gökozan H. (2018). An Internet of Things based air conditioning and lighting control system for Smart Home. American Scientific Re-search Journal for Engineering Technology and Sciences, 181-189.
Murthy K. S., Herur P., Adithya B. R., Lokesh H. (2018). IoT-based light intensity controller. Pro-ceeding of International Conference on Inventive Research in Computing Applications (ICIRCA), 455–460. DOI: 10.1109/ICIRCA.2018.8597416
Gupta A. K., Johari R. (2019). IOT based electrical device surveillance and control system. Proceeding of 4th International Conference on Internet of Things: Smart Innovation and Usages, 1-5. DOI: 10.1109/IoT-SIU.2019.8777342
Intarungsee I., Thararak P., Jirapong P., Pengwon K, Kaewwong S. (2022). Intelligent Internet of Things using artificial neural networks and Kal-man filters for energy management systems. Pro-ceeding of International Electrical Engineering Congress (iEECON), 1-5. DOI: 10.1109/iEECON53204.2022.9741649
Bhatnagar H. V., Kumar P., Rawat S., Choudhury T. (2018). Implementation model of Wi-Fi based Smart Home system. Proceeding of International Conference on Advances in Computing and Communication Engineering (ICACCE), 23-28. DOI: 10.1109/ICACCE.2018.8441703
Song E. Y., FitzPatrick G. J., Lee K. B., Griffor E. (2022). A methodology for modeling interoperabil-ity of Smart Sensors in Smart Grids. IEEE Trans-actions on Smart Grid, 13(1), 555-563. DOI: 10.1109/TSG.2021.3124490
Magro V.I., Plaksin S.V. (2021). Komp'yuterne modelyuvannya vyprominyuvalʹnoho modulya systemy monitorynhu sonyachnoyi el-ektrostantsiyi [Computer modeling of the radia-tion module of the solar power plant monitoring system]. Vidnovlyuvalʹna enerhetyka. 64, 2, 29-37. (in Ukrainian) DOI: 10.36296/1819-8058.2021.2(65).29-37
jMorello R., Capua C. De, Fulco G., Mukhopadh-yay S. C. (2017). A smart power meter to monitor energy flow in Smart Grids: the role of advanced sensing and IoT in the Electric Grid of the future. IEEE Sensors Journal, 17(23), 7828-7837. DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2017.2760014
Haque M. E., Islam M. R., Rabbi M. T. F., J. I. Rafiq M. T. F. (2019). IoT based home automa-tion system with customizable GUI and low cost embedded system. Proceeding of International Conference on Sustainable Technologies for In-dustry 4.0 (STI), 1-4. DOI: 10.1109/STI47673.2019.9068035
Ramani U., Rumar S. S., Santhoshkumar T., Thilagaraj M. (2019). IoT based energy manage-ment for Smart Home. Proceeding of 2nd Interna-tional Conference on Power and Embedded Drive Control (ICPEDC), 533-536. DOI: 10.1109/ICPEDC47771.2019.9036546
Singh H. K., Verma S., Pal S., Pandey K. (2019). A step towards home automation using IOT. Pro-ceeding of Twelfth International Conference on Contemporary Computing (IC3), 1-4. DOI: 10.1109/IC3.2019.8844945
Harini V., Sairam M. V., Madhu R. (2020). Per-formance analysis of an extended Sierpinski gas-ket fractal antenna for mm wave femtocells ap-plications. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, 8, 1-9. DOI: 10.1007/s11277-021-08289-3
Vallappil A. K., Khawaja B. A, Rahim, M. N. Iqbal M. K. A., Chattha H. T. (2022). Metamaterial-inspired electrically compact triangular antennas loaded with CSRR and 3 × 3 cross-slots for 5G in-door distributed antenna systems. Micromachines, 13, 1-9. DOI: 10.3390/mi13020198
Pozar, D.M. (2005). Microwave Engineeringd. N.Y.: Wiley, 736. DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2022.125044
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 V.I. Magro, S.V. Plaksin
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Creative Commons Licensing Notifications in the Copyright Notices
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.