Analysis of electric drive systems for performance of driving and starting under load
Keywords:autotransformer start, amplitude - phase control, vector-pulse control, quasi-frequency mode, thyristor regulator
Purpose. Perform an analysis of existing automated control systems of the electric drive and methods of forming the starting torque to determine the compliance of the selected system and method to the requirements for trouble-free mode of start and start of the technological mechanism in difficult conditions or breakaway and start under load..
Methodology. Comparison of energy performance and capabilities of control systems and methods for the formation of starting torque, mathematical calculations, analysis of the properties of systems and methods in accordance with the requirements of technological operations during the start.
Findings. To obtain the results of the analysis of the current methods of starting induction motors, autotransformer start was considered, which can significantly reduce the starting current, and also connect a capacitor with a reactance to reduce the current and increase the starting torque; the use of soft start with amplitude-phase control allows you to reduce the starting current and reached the absence of its impulses. The vector-pulse method of controlling the converting device increases the starting torque in the absence of an increase in starting current, such advantages have a quasi-frequency starting mode, but the application is limited by special technological equipment. Thyristor voltage regulator using the phase control method, despite its widespread use in control systems, has a low value of the starting torque. To carry out starting in difficult conditions, according to the results of the analysis of existing systems of controlled starting, it was found that a rational electric drive system for hoisting-and-transport mechanisms is a frequency-controlled electric drive system according to the "frequency converter - asynchronous motor" (FC - IM) scheme.
Originality. For the first time it is proposed to improve the existing control systems of hoisting and transport mechanisms that perform start-up in difficult conditions when using the modes of movement to form the starting torque that exceeds the passport value by 3-4 times. Increasing energy efficiency based on increasing their efficiency, information content and data reliability. For the first time, the reasons for the shortcomings of existing control systems during start-up under load in modern production are analyzed.
Practical value. The choice of a rational electric drive system for lifting and transport mechanisms is substantiated when starting in difficult conditions, which will provide maximum efforts in the transmission of a technological mechanism with permissible current and thermal overloads of asynchronous machines.
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